1. Panama is always included in North and Central America. The "natural border" between North and South America is the Isthmus of Panama, while the "man-made" or political border is the Panama/Colombia border.
2. True; Brazil's people and land represent more than half the population and area of South America.
3. Sao Paulo, Brazil is number 3, with 16,110,000. (Mexico City is number 4, with 15,525,000. Number 1 is Tokyo, with 26,518,000; number 2 is New York City with 16,271,000.)
4. Argentina has Mt. Aconcagua, at 22,834 feet, and the Valdes Peninsula, at 131 feet BELOW mean sea level.
5. The Amazon, at 4,000 mile +/- is second behind the Nile (at 4,160). These are followed by the Yangtze (or Chang Ho), at 3,964 miles, the Mississippi-Missouri-Red Rock system at 3,710, and the Yellow (or Huang Ho) at 3,395.
6. The Atacama Desert in Northern Chile, and Patagonia, in Southern Argentina.
7. All three are in Chile. Llullaillaco is the highest at 22,057 feet, followed by Guallatiri at 19,882 feet, and Lascar, at 19,652 feet.
8. Five of the six are in Argentina. Aconcagua, 22,834'; Bonete, 22,546'; Tupungato, 22,310; Pissis, 22,241; Mercedario, 22,211'; Ojos Del Salado, at 22,572', is in the Chilean Altiplano.
9. Not counting English, there are 5 languages in South America spoken as a first language by at least 1 million people. Portuguese, with 162 million speakers is first; Spanish, with 143 million is next. These are followed by Quechua (Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Ecuador) with 8 million, Guarani (Paraguay) with 4 million, and Aymara (Bolivia & Peru) with 2 million speakers.
10. Cabral claimed Brazil for the Portuguese and in 1494, in the Treaty Of Tordesillas, Pope Alexander the 6th drew a line 1500 nm west of the Cape Verdes, and everything East of that line became Portuguese territory, everything West Spanish
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